Friday, September 18, 2020

Buy Pv Publication B Sc Nursing 1st Year,2nd Year,Third Year,4th Year Guides,Solved Papers,Examination Masters Available With Up To 50% Discount At Onlinebooksstore.In

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Thursday, September 17, 2020

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Thursday, August 27, 2020

NE WIN PERIOD Essays - State Of Burma, Military Dictatorships

NE WIN PERIOD Ne Win Period On 2 walk 1962 General NeWin drove the military overthrow detat which ousted the parliamentary administration of U Nu in Burma. He was the long-term Burmese strongman who held onto control of his nation in a military upset in 1962 and set up a dictator government that changed his country, when one of the most prosperous pieces of the British Empire, into one of the world's least fortunate countries. The administration of general Ne Win seizure of intensity, which was quick, peaceful, and Ne win military guideline proceeded until four decades. Additionally, as not long after new win drove the Burma armed force, he at that point ousts U Nus government. U Nu and his priests are imprisoned alongside more than thirty Shan and Karen pioneers. Capturing U Nu, alongside his bureau and the ancestral boss. Guaranteeing he would give Burma an administration proper to its needs, he pronounced military law, broke up the governing body and incomparable court and canceled the constitution. During the period from 1962 the nation was completely changed into a communist one-party state under the administration of General Ne Wins and military was announced as the preeminent position. After the overthrow, the constitution was suspended, broken down the parliament, annulled the state gatherings and assumed responsibility for the state. Every single ideological group, affiliations and associations were illegalized prohibited the development of ideological groups, fight were fiercely smothered. In structure and hypothesis Myanmar stayed a government state however in down to earth the military junta regarded the nation as a unitary state . He additionally settled Revolutionary Council which made completely out of military authorities faithful to him. Ne Wins steadfast officials started military change as mentioned and transformed the Burmese military into an imposing armed force. The change plan included enlistment and preparing to grow the military, foundation of successful knowledge administrations, setting up safeguard organizations, drawing up military conventions and arms acquirement . This overthrow in 1962 denoted the finish of sacred majority rule government and the start of direct military standard in Myanmar. Sadly, the military overthrow in Myanmar since 1962 has neglected to address the countrys progressing administration issues and made things worse.This prompts individuals ascend to contradict government, for example, exhibit of the understudy activists and strict pioneers. In the mid year of 1988, hundreads of thousand of ranchers, urban specialists, understudies, priest and government employees rioted to exhibit against their administration chiefs. They reprove military standard in government as there regular citizen ought to be in the seat of government. This exhibition activity taken by the military government with viciousness. Causing setbacks, upwards of 3,000 demonstrators were slaughtered in the activity. The occasion known as the Age 88, which includes a progression of understudies and priests. After long government managed by Genereal Ne Win he at that point leave his situation as gathering Chairman for General Sein Lwin in the last meeting of Congress IV Burma Socialist Program Party (PPSB), Ne Win declared that he would leave his situation as head of state. He contended that his wellbeing started to fall flat. The finish of the rule of Ne Win as Head of State later supplanted by the Military Juntai SLORC (State Law and Order Restoration Council).

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Senior Iraqi al

This report gives the press explanation gave by the Iraqi Prime Minister, Nouri Maliki, and U.S. authorities. The announcement said that two authorities of al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Ayyub al-Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdad, were murdered when Iraqi powers with U.S. support assaulted their alcove (â€Å"Al-Qaeda in Iraq says pioneers dead†; â€Å"Iraq al-Qaeda pioneers executed in rocket attack†).Advertising We will compose a custom basic composing test on Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda pioneers ‘killed’, news investigation explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The topic in this story is that both the U.S. what's more, Iraq considered the to be as a significant discovery in the War on Terror. This is on the grounds that the end of the fear based oppressors was a critical hit to the tasks of al-Qaeda in Iraq and on the planet. In detailing this story, the essayists of the news stories utilize particular information in announcing this helpful data. The autho rs pick just data that underpins the contention in the story and forgets about everything else. Since al-Qaeda is a worldwide psychological militant association, the passings of these two men couldn't have such a colossal effect on the activities of the gathering as proposed by the journalists. The story is conceivable since it depends on proof; even al-Qaeda itself recognized the demise of the two men. In detailing this story, the composes don't disregard counter-contentions. For instance, the BBC news reports, â€Å"al-Qaeda had attempted to cover Baghdadi by giving a few people his name† (â€Å"Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda pioneers ‘killed,† para. 18). Consequently, they offer proof to help the personality of the fear based oppressors. Of all the data that has been introduced in this story, the journalists essentially underline on the decrease in al-Qaeda’s impact following the death of its top heads. The ramifications of this story is that we can see the deve lopment of majority rule standards in Iraq. Following this assault by the Iraqi government, a few Iraqis reprimanded how the assault was dealt with. A few years back in Iraq, nobody could be heard scrutinizing the Iraqi government. In introducing the story, the scholars present a few explanations or suggestions of qualities and feelings. For instance, an al-Qaeda official was cited saying, â€Å"you can murder our top person yet we’re still around and we’re in charge of events† (Rising, para. 26). In this example, the essayist attempts to bring the inclination that War on Terror is as yet something that needs a synergistic exertion so as to be won. As to decision, the essayists picked the most suitable language that can convince the perusers to grapple with the current issue. Since in the midst of war, lucidity is typically the primary loss, the authors depicted watchfulness in shielding news proclamation from security damage.Advertising Looking for basic compos ition on worldwide relations? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When detailing questionable explanations, they favored citing the source legitimately. For instance, â€Å"Can al-Qaeda pull off†¦how do Iraqis respond?†(Rising, para. 27). The story is composed equitably by focusing on decency, factuality, and nonpartisanship. After the two psychological militants were murdered, the journalists cited reaction explanations from both the Iraqi government authorities and the al-Qaeda authorities. This story was composed when the Iraqi government, with the help of the U.S., was engaged with endeavors of lessening the danger that was presented by al-Qaeda in Iraq. Since the declaration was made by the Iraqi Prime Minister, al-Maliki, it demonstrated the exertion its administration was making in battling the extremists. The essayists have given this story against the foundation of the fervently challenged political decisio n brings about Iraq. After this occurrence, he picked up notoriety as the person who can reestablish steadiness to the nation indeed. Works Cited â€Å"Al-Qaeda in Iraq says pioneers dead.† News: Middle East. Aljazeera. 25 April 2010. Web. Galey, Patrick. â€Å"Thousands walk in Beirut to advance secularism in politics.† Be seen,â be on the star scene. The Daily Star. 30 April 2010. Web. â€Å"Iraq al-Qaeda pioneers murdered in rocket attack.† New legislator. New Statesman. 20 April 2010. Web. This basic composition on Senior Iraqi al-Qaeda pioneers ‘killed’, news examination was composed and put together by client Cali Howell to help you with your own examinations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; nonetheless, you should refer to it in like manner. You can give your paper here.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Impact of Facebook Network Infrastructure

Question: How Facebook Network Infrastructure can be affected by the New Era of Big Data. Answer: Presentation Agnellutt (2014, p23) characterizes enormous information as the social occasion and examination of huge amounts of information with the essential target of uncovering concealed knowledge or bits of knowledge. Instances of information gathered incorporate machine information, sensor information, or client information. On the off chance that associations channel their assets and time in investigating enormous information, they can wander into new markets, improve their upper hand in the business, and access new business openings (Gathegi et al. 2014, p.86). Large information contrasted with other information sources, for example, organized information is described by three one of a kind characteristics including speed, volume, and assortment (Janssen 2015, p.123). Huge information involves both unstructured and semi-organized information including log documents, click-streams, video, sound, and content. Large information additionally permit associations to dissect their gigantic volume s of information continuously. For those associations that have just grasped the innovation are collecting various advantages contrasted with their partners. For example, the money related assistance segment is using large information innovation to break down their clients with the goal that they can decide their capabilities for credit, home loan, or credit (Abbasi, Sarker Chiang 2016, p.10). Social insurance suppliers, then again, are sharing and overseeing electronic wellbeing data of their patients from different sources and various practices. Administrative organizations and pharmaceutical organizations are following huge information arrangements so they can give their intended interest group shorter and progressively productive medication advancement strategies just as track the adequacy of their medications. Given the significance of huge information in different associations, the paper intends to break down how Facebook organization arrange framework can be affected by the n ew time of Big Data. Outline of Big Data and its Significance in Organizatchions During the 1990s, the significant data innovation challenges that associations confronted is the account and empowering of quicker and more business exchanges (Connelly et al. 2016, p.32). Be that as it may, with innovation progression, associations are concentrating on quick conveyance of information to cell phones, PCs, and frameworks, made conceivable by enormous information. Large information in the present business condition is utilized to extricate an incentive from immense volumes of information. For on the web and new businesses, for example, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Google, huge information is something new. Be that as it may, huge firms see large information as something that upgrades their imaginativeness. A few associations fight that they have taken care of their model and frameworks with large information, yet will be yet to encounter something progressive about the innovation (Frizzo-Barker 2016, p.405). In any case, they are as yet seeking after enormous information du e to its capacity to evaluate particular sorts of information sources and sets. Firms that were at first used to taking care of huge amounts of information are starting to be energetic about their ability to deal with different information classifications including video, pictures, log records, content, or voice. For example, a retail bank is presently using large information to deal with cooperations from their different clients by evaluating their log records (Goes 2014, p.6). Then again, lodgings are using video investigation to examine their client lines though a wellbeing back up plan is utilizing the innovation to conceive client disappointment utilizing call focus chronicles to audit discourse to-content information. In a perfect world, huge information license organizations, for example, Facebook to have an away from of their tasks and clients by blending both organized and unstructured information. Advantages of Big Data Since the commencement of business, significant and effective choices depended on the investigation and understanding of information. Because of the unpredictability and amount of information being created on a solitary day, regular information preparing applications and the board devices have not been powerful in information stockpiling and examination (Liu Guo 2016, p.23). The significant test with these regular apparatuses is their powerlessness to share, search, store, catch, envision, break down, and move information. Large information contrasted with customary data advances can bring about generous decreases in the time expected to offer new types of assistance and items, complete a figuring movement, just as diminish the expenses of tasks (Papadopoulos et al. 2016, p.42). It additionally assumes a basic job in settling on choices that influence the activities of the association. Similarly, enormous information are characterized by cutting edge search capacities and investigati on. Organizations are additionally accomplishing different goals through the execution of enormous information innovation. A portion of these destinations include: enabling staff in different divisions to break down and investigate data and thus offer their perspectives with respect to the data. Enormous information is likewise giving critical bits of knowledge with respect to the techniques that associations can apply to oversee hazard and improve their business results and upgrade the choices made by association administrators or robotized frameworks. In this way, large information is used by associations, for example, Facebook to adjust to the changing needs of their customers and to reshape them dependent on the business that they are directing their activities (Reed Dongarra 2015, p.60). Itemized Analysis of How Facebook Network Infrastructure can be Impacted by the New Era of Big Data Diagram of the Facebook Network Infrastructure Facebook was structured with the essential target of helping individuals share data and interface. The association in the earlier decade has put resources into apparatuses that are changing individuals over the globe as they convey among themselves. Furthermore, the organization has spent around one billion dollars in redesigning its system framework that serves roughly 855 million clients over the world (Miller 2012, p.6). In 2011, the organization spent about $ 606million on server farms, arrange rigging, stockpiling, and on servers. The organization in 2012 expanded its financial plan to $ 500million (Miller 2012, p.8).The organization achievement is ascribed to its enormous stockpiling and servers that work to permit clients to make a Facebook page and burden their landing page. Every one of these activities require the organization to get to various servers and procedure monstrous measures of information. How Facebook Network Infrastructure can be affected by the New Era of Big Data As indicated by Tan (2015, p.225), organizations that are increasing an upper hand in their separate ventures have put vigorously in their capacity to break down, incorporate and gather information from their various deals unit and stores. Moreover, they are connecting the data gathered to their providers database making it simpler at them to modify costs in like manner and re-request quick moving things in their stores naturally. The utilization of huge information additionally permits organizations to continually combine, test and group data making it open to all association representatives including the CEO. In this respects, enormous information helps in following deals and buys just as give bits of knowledge in regards to the conduct of customers in the market (Marr 2016, p.95). In any case the speculations made by the organizations with respect to the putting away, gathering and dissecting information, the amount of information has detonated in the past scarcely any years. Facebook, whose staff surpasses 1000 overall, has roughly 235 terabytes of information which begin from the companys client cooperations and money related exchanges (Miller 2012, p.5). Information additionally stream from numerous focuses and new gadgets in the organization flexibly chain. Moreover, the companys deals and showcasing office dissects online networking criticism from potential customers or uses position information from their Smartphones to understand their clients conduct while utilizing the Facebook stage. Besides, workers and different partners in the gracefully chain may be trading information. The accessibility of this new data in the organization database display suggestions for associations and their pioneers. Hence, developing writing sets that associations that use business examination and information to settle on choices are exceptionally serious and record higher net revenues contrasted with their rivals. Hence, arranged associations in the time of huge information are vital in drawing in providers and clients through data trade in their sites. For this situation, the new time of large information will impactsly affect Facebook organize framework. Enormous Data and Facebook Network Infrastructure Server farm foundations inside the past two decades have been created so that it intently adjusts end clients, applications, and information with the essential goal of furnishing the intended interest group with superior and secure access. In any case, these server farm foundations have gotten normal, and system overseers, for example, Facebook executives are distinguishing ways that they can give their end clients the required assets to show, execute, and arrange information (Morabit 2015, p.93). Prior to the rise of large information time, Facebook organize framework incredibly relied upon the three-level engineering. In any case, with the period of large information, Facebook organize framework will incredibly change. For example, its information will be conveyed on a level plane across organize hubs. Plus, its stockpiling and server hubs will be significantly more prominent contrasted with the hubs between end clients and servers. So also, the organization through large informati on can produce realities by capacity, application, or servers as opposed to an outside source, for example, framework log documents. With the time of large information, Facebook organize foundation will be described by discretely gradual and little informational indexes. In this manner, Facebook will be required to redesign its ordinary SQL apparatuses or OLTP (online exchange preparing) information stores since they are not good with huge information (Ju

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

What to Look for in an Organization 2019

Who said you had to settle for a lousy job just because of the economy? There are plenty of great organizations filled with great people just like you that are looking to hire. Working for The Man doesnt have to be a bad thing. In fact, it can be very financially and personally fulfilling. Below we take a look at what to look for in a great organization. Great Leadership Great organizations do not happen by accident. They are lead by great leaders. All organizations, good or bad, rise and fall on the quality of the leadership. Leadership authors Kouzes and Posner define the top 5 greatest leadership qualities as: †¢ Modeling the way – they practice what they preach. Their behaviors are congruent with their actions †¢ Inspiring a shared vision – they know how to motivate people by capturing their imagination. Not using fear or reward. .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf:active, .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u8a11b12bffe768bec2671bf26997b4cf:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ RN to Bachelor of Science in Nursing 10 Highest Paying Nursing Specialties in Colorado†¢ Challenge the Process – they are not status quo. They are innovative and thrive on change, and adversity. †¢ Enable others to act – they are not insecure. They empower others to reach their potential. People feel free to act because of the openness and freedom they feel- even if they make a mistake. †¢ Encourage the heart – they connect with people on a personal level. They show themselves as human beings not afraid to be real. Flexibility Great organizations allow people to have a balance between work and life. These organizations will give you a chance to telecommute or work a flexible schedule that allows you to pick up the kids from school and take them to soccer practice. This keeps employees happy and motivated. Variety You dont want your job to be like a 9-5 version of the move Groundhog Day. Variety is the spice of life – especially at work. This keeps you on your toes and avoids boredom from setting in. You are always learning and gaining new skill sets. Thats good for you and good for the organization. .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5 { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5:active, .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5 { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5 .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5 .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u51a2d28e321dec5b3e16851d3361d2e5:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ A Day in the Life of an Online Masters Degree StudentCommunity A spirit of community and family makes going to work a lot easier. When everyone is on the same page working together its great. You might not be singing songs around the campfire, but you genuinely enjoy a great work environment with great people. Nothing is worse than working in a terrible atmosphere filled with backbiting, gossip, and undermining. Opportunity People who feel like they have a future at the organization they work in are much happier. Its nice to know that you will be rewarded for your hard work. No one wants to work in a place where they keep bumping into the glass ceiling. Related ArticlesHuman Resource Management TrainingHow to Handle a Group InterviewBachelor Degree in Business AdministrationBeliefs that are Hurting your CareerOnline RN to BSN Does Education Make a Better NurseBest Interview Questions to Ask

Friday, May 15, 2020

Wimbleball Reservoir

Sample details Pages: 21 Words: 6337 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? An Evaluation of the hydrological impacts of Wimbleball Reservoir using the IHA approach A river acts both as a source and carrier of water for supporting and sustaining the biological diversity and integrity of the aquatic, wetland and riparian species and natural ecosystems. To accomplish these functions, it is necessary that river water meets some essential qualitative and quantitative parameters and the stream-flow exhibits the dynamics and hydrological attributes comparable to that of natural or unaltered river flows (hydrologic regime). This hydrologic regime is the lifeline of freshwater ecosystem and all diverse variety of aquatic riparian species are for long accustomed and adapted to the characteristic temporal, spatial and hydrologic variation of water flow cycles attributable to the natural or unaltered water flow. Unfortunately, this regime and its naturally configured variation patterns get disturbed failing to absorb the stresses induced by our ever-increasing demands and environmentally irresponsive use of water. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Wimbleball Reservoir | Engineering Dissertations" essay for you Create order To evaluate the shifts in the pre and post-reservoir hydrologic parameters, the effect of Wimbleball Reservoir have been analysed based on the long-term flow-patterns of the downstream discharge of the reservoir. The analysis was conducted by a very robust statistical model called the IHA model. Both long term differences and RVA analysis show substantial impacts of manmade reservoir control on the biota of the Exe-catchment. Introduction Water bodies like rivers, streams, channels, etc. serve a dual function being essential source points for our day-to-day water requirements as well being its transporters or carriers by flowing in and channelling water downstream to the river beds, catchments and agricultural fields in the process supporting and sustaining the biological diversity and integrity of the aquatic, wetland and riparian species and natural ecosystems. Our earth is also called the water planet as water forms approximately 70% of its total surface (The Ground Water Foundation,2003) but only a part of it is available for our use. This realization has long back prompted us to take up some water management practices. In the beginning, water management practices were very much focused on issues like water quality and flood control measures and the overall strategy was never so broad to include other aspects like water quantity, stream flow management and restoration (BD, Richter, etal,1997)2. However, issues pertaining to water quantity, flow, restoration, etc. gradually started to get prominence in our policy framework following a landmark order passed by the US Supreme Court identifying the separation of water quality from water quantity and flow as an artificial distinction and recommending incorporation of both water quality and quantity objectives in a broader and comprehensive water management policy framework (US-EPA, 2002)3. Water quality, quantity flow conditions are in way inseparable features considering the fact that the amount of flow in a river effects many issues of water quality and water quantity at the same time. Therefore, the assessment on the wholesomeness of water in any system is essentially dictated by the above conditions of quality, quantity and flow characteristics. Going by this approach broadens the overall water policy framework making this a comprehensive management initiative. This shift in water management approach necessitated re-configuration of the erstwhile single or limited objective driven practice of flood storm water control thereby embracing a comprehensive initiative of total ecosystem management restoration having multi-utility potentials. This system is very important and effective because this takes into account the sustainable use of water resources or water takings and their possible restoration (Dept. of Fisheries Oceans, Canada, 2002)4. Under the ambit of this, it is necessary that river water meets some essential qualitative and quantitative parameters and the stream-flow exhibits the dynamics and hydrological attributes (hydrologic regime) comparable to that of natural or unaltered river flow (Richter D. Brian etal) 5. This hydrologic regime or natural flow regime is the lifeline of freshwater ecosystem and all diverse variety of aquatic riparian species are for long accustomed and adapted to the characteristic temporal, spatial and hydrologic variations of water flow cycles attributable to the natural or unaltered water flow. Unfortunately, this regime and its naturally configured variation patterns get disturbed (Allan David HinzLeon, SNRE, 2004)6 failing to absorb the stresses induced by our ever-increasing water takings demands and environmentally irresponsive use of water. In fact, this is the point where human intervention or controls and water integrity issues found themselves in a highly confronting and conflicting platform. Increased water demands compelling human actions like construction of water reservoirs, dams, impoundments, etc. for storing and using water for domestic, energy and hydropower, artificial parks and various other uses have started taking their toll on river waters and water bodies substantially degrading the quality, quantity and importantly squeezing the downstream water flows(Benue, A. C. 1990). This flow reduction in rivers consequential to manmade flood and irrigation control practices like reservoirs and dams are found to alter the natural hydrologic regime bringing in a series of impairments to overall ecosystem and also opening up a new front in the field of river and hydrology studies. This paper aims to assess the variations in the hydrological parameters of a river system specifically attributable to impacts of man-made interventions or controls like reservoirs. Primarily, the research ambition is to identify and evaluate the degree of alterations in the hydrologic profile by analysing the long-term historical as well recent water flow records representative of the pre-impact and post-impact period of construction and commissioning of a typical reservoir. An emerging computer tool called the IHA (Indicators of Hydrologic Alterations) has been applied to generate scenarios and analyze the data. The records and data needs for this study have been sourced from an existing gauging station in the Exe river of South-West England strategically selected to represent the influence of the Wimbleball Reservoir. Natural Flow Regime Hydrologic Alterations Ecological Significance The concept of natural flow regime is based on the understanding that aquatic and riparian organisms depend upon, or can tolerate arrange of flow conditions specific to each species (Puff etal, 1997)7.For example, certain fish species moves into safer floodplain areas during floods to feed and escape from attacks of other species occupying the main water body thereby adapting a mechanism to survive and carry on all by itself. This in a way indicates that if flooding occurs at the right time of the year, and lasts for the right amount of time, these fish populations will benefit from the flood event finally. Again as a contrast to this case, other species may be adversely affected by the same flood. With the development of the science of hydrology, it has been confirmed with a good degree of confidence that hydrologic regime with all its natural and temporal variations (both intra-annual and inter-annual) are needed to maintain and restore the natural form and function of aquatic ecosystems. However, this prerequisite is not in line with the traditional water management practice which is functionally attuned to influence and dampen natural fluctuations with the objective to provide steady and undisturbed supply of water for different in-stream and out-of-stream activities(Richter et al., 2003) . Moreover, for intervening and containing extreme drought and flood events, the traditional water management initiatives rather relied on moderating and limiting flow fluctuations. Many studies indicate natural flow regime as a determinant toing-stream flow needs of a water body. For example, (Richter et al,1996) and (Puff et al. 1997) generalized that natural flow conditions may indicate and determine in-stream flow requirements. There exists a correlation between stream-flow and other physicochemical characteristics critical to ecological integrity of streams and rivers(Puff etal., 1997). Precisely, flow can be associated to some direct as well indirect or secondary impacts and as such flow characteristics can be used as surrogates for other in-stream indicators and ecosystem conditions and importantly the components of a flow regime as shown infigure-1, are very much accessible to scientific inquiry (IFC, 2002,Poff et al. 1997, Richter et al., 1996) . Any disruption, fragmentation and dilution of this natural regime of water-flow leads to Hydrological alteration and in general, this can be defined as any anthropogenic disruption in the magnitude or timing of natural river flows (Biosciences, 50-9, 2000). The natural flow regime of a river is dependent on various factors including rainfall, temperature and evaporation when considered in a broader geographic scale or macro-scale and is also influenced by the physical characteristics of a catchment at the catchment level or micro-scale(Rash et al, 1988) . As mentioned earlier, river flow regimes are also affected directly and indirectly by human activities. Such human interventions disrupting natural flow of a river through construction and operation of reservoirs and dams have the potential of triggering a series of undesirable consequences like extensive ecological degradation, loss of biological diversity, water quality deterioration, groundwater depletion, and also more frequent and intense flooding(Puff et al, 1997). Reservoir are built to store water to compensate for fluctuations in river flow, thereby providing a measure of human control of water resources, or to raise the level of water upstream to either increase hydraulic head or enable diversion of water into canal. The creation of storage and head allows reservoirs to generate electricity, to supply water for agriculture, industries, and municipalities, to mitigate flooding and to assist river navigation(Rash et al. 1988). The biological effects of hydrologic alterations are often difficult to disentangle from those of other environmental perturbations in heavily developed catchments as identified by Rosenberg et al. (Environmental Reviews 5: 2754, 1997) . The impacts of large-scale hydrological alteration include habitat fragmentation within rivers (Dynes us and Nilsson 1994) , downstream habitat changes, such as loss of floodplains, riparian zones, and adjacent wetlands and deterioration and loss of river deltas and ocean estuaries (Rosenberg et al. 1997)36,deterioration of irrigated terrestrial environments and associated surface waters (McCall 1996) . Hydrological alterations also bring another indirect or secondary impacts on the genetic, ecosystem and global levels. They can cause genetic isolation through habitat fragmentation (Pringle 1997) , changes in processes such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity (Pringle 1997, Rosenberg et al. 1997),etc. With the realization of the importance of natural flow regime and the possible dangers posed by human alterations, there emerged a relatively new and promising water and ecology management paradigm. Many researchers started seeing this as a very comprehensive and sound management option and on many occasions stressed regarding the urgency of protecting or restoring natural hydrologic regimes (Sparks 1992;National Research Council, Doppler et al. 1993; and Dynes us Nilsson 1994) . Effective ecosystem management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland system requires that existing hydrologic regimes be characterized using biologically-relevant hydrologic parameters, and that the degree to which human-altered regimes differ from natural or preferred conditions be related to the status and trends of the biota(BD, Richter, etal, 1997). Ecosystem management efforts should be considered experiments, testing the need to maintain or restore natural hydrologic regime characteristics in order to sustain ecosystem integrity. Only some limited studies have closely examined hydrologic influences on ecosystem integrity and this is mainly because most of the commonly used statistical tools are poorly suited for characterizing hydrologic data into biologically relevant attributes(BD, Richter, etal, 1997). Without such knowledge, ecosystem managers will not be compelled to protect or restore natural hydrologic regime characteristics. However, recently, there have been some significant developments in the field of hydrological studies and importantly few robust computer statistical tools and models like IHA Range of Variability Approach (RVA) using the (Indicators of Hydrologic Alterations, BD, Richter, etal, 1997), Wetted Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM Model, Jowett, 1997)35, Flow Incremental Methodology (FIM), other Hydrologic Modelling Software like GAWSER, Ontario Flow Assessment Techniques (OFAT), etc. are now known to exist(Jowett, 1997). The following sections attempt to evaluate and assess the possible effects of hydrological alteration specifically induced by human interventions or activities. A very useful computer model called the model (available at has been used for generating and evaluating the effects of flow variations. The ecological zone considered for analysis in this paper is the Exe river Estuary region and the gauging station selected is 45001 Exe at Thorverton. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) Method Approaches Application The evaluation and assessment of the flow regime of the Exe-river system and the variations it witnessed after the construction of the Wimbleball Reservoir have been accomplished by the application of Avery detailed computer-modelling tool known as the IHA or Indicators of Hydrologic Assessment model. The software basically takes birth from the concept of integrity and wholesomeness of the natural flow regime and is configured and capable of determining the relative transformations and variations in this natural flow regime subject to any natural or artificial modifications or alterations (BD, Richter, etal, 1997). At first, it requires defining and identifying a series of biologically-relevant hydrologic attributes that characterize intra anointer-annual variations in water conditions which are further processed for a robust statistical variation analysis after isolating the data-sets to represent two different periods resembling the pre-impact and post-impact scenarios (Rosenberg, et al, 2002). The Nature Conservancy is now the custodian of this statistical tool, which is very useful for assessing the degree to which human activities have changed flow regimes (US-EPA, 2002). Brian D. Richter and et al. from the Nature Conservancy (Richter D. Brian, etal, 1996-97) have identified four basic for this analysis and they are: (I) Define the data series (e.g., stream-gauge or well records) for pre- and post-impact periods in the ecosystem of interest. (ii) Calculate values of hydrologic attributes Values for each of 32ecologically-relevant hydrologic attributes are calculated for each year in each data series, i.e., one set of values for the pre-impact data series and one for the post-impact data series. (iii) Compute inter-annual statistics Compute measures of central tendency and dispersion for the 32 attributes in each data series, based on the values calculated in step 2. This produces a total of 64 inter-annual statistics for each data series (32 measures of central tendency and 32 measures of dispersion). (iv) Calculate values of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration -Compare the 64 inter-annual statistics between the pre- and post-impact data series, and present each result as a percentage deviation of onetime period (the post-impact condition) relative to the other (there-impact condition). The method equally can be used to compare the state of one system to itself over time (e.g., pre- versus post-impacts just described); or it can be used to compare the state of one system to another (e.g., an altered system to a reference system), or to compare current conditions to simulated results based on models of future modification to a system. The same computational strategies will work with any regular-interval hydrologic data, such as monthly means; however, the sensitivity of the IHA method for detecting hydrologic alteration is increasingly compromised with time intervals longer than a day (Richter. Brian, etal, 1996-97). Detection of certain types of hydrologic impacts, such as the rapid flow fluctuations associated with hydropower generation at dams, may require even shorter (hourly) interval. They have also suggested that the basic data for estimating all attribute values may preferably be daily mean water conditions (levels, heads, flow rates). Hydrologic conditions in general can vary in four dimensions within an ecosystem (three spatial dimensions and time).However, the three spatial domains can be scaled down to one with the assumption that only one spatial domain exists at any strategic location over time in a river system. Restricting the domain to one specific point within a hydrologic system (like any measuring point in river) makes it simple for us to identify specific water conditions with one spatial and one temporal domain. These events may be specific water conditions like heads, levels, rate of change, etc. (Richter Brian, etal, 1996) whose temporal variations can be recorded and assessed from that particular spatial point or from a single position. Such temporal changes in water conditions are commonly portrayed as plots of water condition against time, or hydrographs. Here, we seek to study and analyse the variations in hydrologic conditions using indicators and attributes, which should essentially be biologically relevant as well as responsive to human influences or modifications like reservoir and dam operations, ground water pumping, agricultural activities, etc. at the same time (Richter D. Brian, etal,1996,). Importantly, a variety of features or parameters of hydrologic regime can be used and functionally superimposed (Sense South wood 1977, 1988; Puff Ward 1990}40 to virtually represent and finally characterize the physical habitat templates (Townsend Hilde, 1994)43 or environmental filters (Sense Eddy 1992)42that shape the biotic composition of aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. The IHA method is based on 32 biologically relevant hydrologic attributes, which are divided into five major groups to statistically characterize intra-annual hydrologic variation as showman Table-1. These 32 attributes are based upon the following five fundamental characteristics of hydrologic regimes: 1. the magnitude of the water condition at any given time is measure of the availability or suitability of habitat, and defines such habitat attributes as wetted area or habitat volume, or the position of water table relative to wetland or riparian plant rooting zones; 2. the timing of occurrence of particular water conditions can determine whether certain life cycle requirements are met, or influence the degree of stress or mortality associated with extreme water conditions such as floods or droughts; 3. the frequency of occurrence of specific water conditions such as droughts or floods may be tied to reproduction or mortality events for various species, thereby influencing population dynamics; 4. the duration of time over which a specific water condition exists may determine whether a particular life cycle phase can be completed, or the degree to which stressful effects such as inundation or desiccation can accumulate; 5. the rate of change in water conditions may be tied to the stranding of certain organisms along the waters edge or in pounded depressions, or the ability of plant roots to maintain contact with phreatic water supplies. A detailed representation of the hydrologic regime can be obtained from these 32 parameters for the purpose of assessing hydrologic alteration. Importantly, all the parameters having good ecological relevance do not call for any parameter specific statistical analysis and all of them can be processed by single and unique approach like they (Kozlowski 1984; Bustard 1984; Puff Ward 1989)46. Also, because certain stream-flow levels shape physical habitat conditions within river channels, it is needed to identify some hydrologic characteristics that might aid in detection of physical habitat alterations. (Richter D. Brian, etal, 1997). Sixteen of the hydrologic parameters focus on the magnitude, duration, timing, and frequency of extreme events, because of the pervasive influence of extreme forces in ecosystems (Gaines Denny 1994)48 and geomorphology (Leopold1994)49 and other 16 parameters measure the central tendency of either the magnitude or rate of change of water conditions (Table-2). The rationale underlying the five major groupings and the specific parameters included within each are described below. Table-2: Summary of various Hydrological Groups Groups Descriptions Number of total Hydrologic Parameters 1 Magnitude of monthly water conditions 12 2 Magnitude duration of annual extremes 10 3 Timing of annual extremes 02 4 Frequency duration of high low pulses 04 5 Rate frequency of change in conditions 04 Group-1: Magnitude of Monthly Water Conditions This group includes 12 parameters, each of which measures the central tendency (mean) of the daily water conditions for a given month. The monthly mean of the daily water conditions describes normal daily conditions for the month, and thus provides a general measure of habitat availability or suitability. The similarity of monthly means within a year reflects conditions of relative hydrologic constancy, whereas inter-annual variation (e.g., coefficient of variation) in the mean water condition of a given Month provides an expression of environmental contingency (Colwell 1974; Puff Ward1989). The terms constancy and contingency as used here refer tithe degree to which monthly means vary from month to month (constancy),and the extent to which flows vary within any given month(contingency). Group-2: Magnitude and Duration of Annual Extreme Water Conditions The 10 parameters in this group measure the magnitude of extreme(minimum and maximum) annual water conditions of various duration, ranging from daily to seasonal. The durations that we use follow natural or human-imposed cycles, and include the 1-day, 3-day, 7-day(weekly), 30-day (monthly), and 90-day (seasonal) extremes. For any given year, the 1-day maximum (or minimum) is represented by the highest (or lowest) single daily value occurring during the year; thematic-day maximum (or minimum) is represented by the highest (or lowest) multi-day average value occurring during the year. The mean magnitudes of high and low water extremes of various duration provide measures of environmental stress and disturbance during the year; conversely, such extremes may be necessary precursors or triggers for reproduction of certain species. The inter-annual variation (e.g. Coefficient of variation) in the magnitudes of these extremes provides another expression of contingency. Group-3: Timing of Annual Extreme Water Conditions This group includes 02 parameters one measuring the Julian date of the 1-day annual minimum water condition, and the other measuring the Julian date of the 1-day maximum water condition. The timing of the highest and lowest water conditions within annual cycles provides another measure of environmental disturbance or stress by describing the seasonal nature of these stresses. Key life cycle phases (e.g. Reproduction) may be intimately linked to the timing of annual extremes, and thus human induced changes in timing may cause reproductive failure, stress, or mortality. The inter-annual variation in timing of extreme events reflects environmental contingency. Group-4: Frequency and Duration of High and Low Pulses This group has 04 parameters include two, which measure the number of annual occurrences during which the magnitude of the water condition exceeds an upper threshold or remains below a lower threshold, respectively, and two, which measure the mean duration of such high and low pulses. These measures of frequency and duration of high- and low-water conditions together portray the pulsing behaviour of environmental variation within a year, and provide measures of the shape of these environmental pulses. Hydrologic pulses are defined here as those periods within a year in which the daily mean water condition either rises above the 75th percentile (high pulse) or drops below the25th percentile (low pulse) of all daily values for the pre-impact time period. Group-5: Rate and Frequency of Change in Water Conditions The four parameters included in this group measure the number and mean rate of both positive and negative changes in water conditions from one day to the next. The Rates and frequency of change in water conditions can be described in terms of the abruptness and number of intra-annual cycles of environmental variation, and provide a measure of the rate and frequency of intra-annual environmental change. Assessing Hydrologic Alteration In assessing the impact of a perturbation on the hydrologic regime, we want to determine whether the state of the perturbed system differs significantly from what it would have been in the absence of the perturbation. In particular, we want to test whether the central tendency or degree of inter-annual variation of an attribute of interest has been altered by the perturbation (Stewart-Oaten et al.1986)55. The assessment of impacts to natural systems often poses difficult statistical problems, however, because the perturbation of interest cannot be replicated or randomly assigned to experimental units (Carpenter 1989; Carpenter et al. 1989; Hulbert 1984;Stewart-Oaten et al. 1986)66. The lack of replication does not hinder estimation of the magnitude of an effect, but limits inferences regarding its causes. However, the IHA method is robust and can be easily adapted to more sophisticated experimental designs. A standard statistical comparison of the 32 IHA parameters between two data series would include tests of the null hypothesis that the central tendency or dispersion of each has not changed. However, this null hypothesis is generally far less interesting in impact assessments than questions about the sizes of detectable changes and their potential biological importance. A standardized process for assessing hydrologic impacts is included within the IHA software. The Range of Variability Method (RVA) is another analysis frame in which to assess change in structured manner. This method of determining hydrologic alteration is based on the theory that there is natural variability in stream-flow. The RVA software would plot and determine whether an activity, such as water taking, would alter the stream-low outside this normal variability. Significant alteration would occur if the stream-low regime were altered more than one standard deviation from the natural variability, which may have ecological consequences. Development of Pre- and Post-Impact scenarios When adequate hydrologic records are available for both there-impact and post-impact time periods, application of the IHA method will be relatively straightforward using the statistical procedures described above. When pre- or post-impact records are nonexistent,include data gaps, or are inadequate in length, however, various datareconstruction or estimation procedures will need to be employed. Examples of such procedures include the hydrologic record extension techniques described by Searcy (1960) and Alley Burns (1983).Hydrologic simulation modelling or water budgeting techniques can also be used to synthesize hydrologic records for comparison using the IHAmethod (Linsley et al. 1982)73. Accounting for Climatic Differences Climatic differences between the pre- and post-impact time periods obviously have the potential to substantially influence the outcome of the IHA analysis. Various statistical techniques can be used to test for climatic differences in the hydrologic data to be compared. When the IHA analysis is to be based upon actual hydrologic measurements rather than estimates produced from models, a reference site or set of sites uninfluenced by the human alterations being examined can be used as climatic controls (Alley Burns 1983). For example, stream-gauge may exist upstream of a reservoir thought to have impacted study site. Analyses can establish a statistical relationship between stream-lows at the study site and at the upstream reference site using synchronous pre-dam data sets for the two sites. This relationship can then be used to estimate the stream-low conditions that would have occurred at the study site during the post-impact time period in the absence of the reservoir. IHA Application- Description of Study Site As mentioned earlier, the principal motive of this study is tantalize and evaluate the impacts, if any, of human interventions like reservoir operations on the overall sanctity and natural integrity, i.e. the natural hydrologic regime of water bodies like rivers. Here the operation of a well know reservoir in the south-west coast of Britain called the Wimbleball reservoir has been identified as the human intervention point which is sufficiently used to store and supply water to cater to human needs like hydropower, drinking water supply, etc. (SW-Environment Agency, 2003)81 and eventually it ends up regulating a river system in the process. The down-stream water body and habitat, which is expected to come under the influence of the alterations resulting from the Wimbleball reservoir operations, considered here is the Exe-river estuary system. The main motivation for selection of the above reservoir and the river system happens to bathe strategically located river monitoring system (gauge-station),which falls in the influence zone. This station is designated asNo.45001-Exe at Thorverton having a grid reference of 21 (SS) 936016 (NRFA Data Holdings, 2005)66. Figure-2 (enclosed) shows diagrammatic representation of the Exe-river catchments area along with the positions of the river and reservoir. The national authority NRFA, describes the monitoring station as Velocity-area station with cableway and flat V-Crump profile weir constructed in 1973 due to unstable bed condition (NRFA, 2005)66. There also exists minor culvert flow through mill u/s of station included in rating. Notably, Low flows are affected significantly by the operations of the Wimbleballreservoir post-1979 and by exports to the Taw catchment. Station iscontrol point for operational releases from Wimbleball (NRFA DataHoldings, 2005)66. The headwaters drain Exmoor and the geology is predominantly Devonian sandstones and Carboniferous Culm Measures, with subordinate Permian sandstones in the east, Moorland, forestry and arrange of agriculture (NRFA Data Holdings, 2005)66. The Exe Estuary is partially an enclosed tidal area composed of both aquatic (marine, brackish and freshwater) and terrestrial habitats. The Estuary makes an important contribution to the diversity of British estuaries by virtue of its unspoilt nature, international conservation importance, recreational opportunities and high landscape value(SW-Environment Agency, 2003) . This Estuary flows through an open landscape with gently rolling hills on either side. It is shallower than many estuaries in the south west of England, so the tide plays significant role, with large expanses of sandbanks and mudflats exposed at low water. The waters, foreshore and low-lying land of the area create a varied habitat, which supports a diverse range of flora and fauna. The Estuary is particularly important for ornithological interests, both in terms of the diversity of species represented and in the large numbers of birds utilizing its resources. This importance is reflected in the areas designations as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramseur Convention, a SPA and a SSSI(SW-Environment Agency, 2003) . According to the South West Water Company, the major water supplier in the Exe-region, the demand for water has risen by approximately 30%since 1976. In the mid-seventies each person used an average of 24gallons (110 litters) a day. Today, that figure has risen to 35 gallons(159 litters) ( . Even if this region is relatively wet part of England, the geology of the region sees most rainwater draining away very quickly. About 90% of the water in this part is sourced from surface waters in the form of rivers and reservoirs and only about 10% water is derived from underground sources, that too in the East Devon area (SW-Environment Agency, 2003) . This is the reason why it was decided to consider only surface waters in this study. Significantly, the regions water storage capacity at present has almost quadrupled compared to the requirements of the mid-seventies. Therefore, it is evident that this region heavily depends on surface waters and water abstractions here appear to be very substantial. Data Processing for IHA Application For this study, a strategic water monitoring station has been identified over river Exe that captures flow data just down the discharge point of the Wimbleball reservoir. Moreover, this particular station is also very much desirable as this gives us a series of fairly long-term river flow (mean daily flow) and condition data covering both the pre and post periods of Wimbleball construction. The data sets used in running the IHA software include long-term flow conditions (mean daily flow) recorded at the gauge-station No.45001-Exe at Thorverton. The data for this station along with related information have been taken from the NRFA and Data Holdings on-line information and their centralized data bank. IHA protocols recommend using at least a20-years time series data set for better analysis and consistency in results (Richter D. Brian, etal, 1997). In line with this requirement, a fairly long-term time-series data set starting from 1956 to 2005 has been considered in this study with a pre-impact period span of 24 years(1956-1979) and a post-impact period span of 24 years (1980-2005). Already mentioned earlier, the main aim of this study is to investigate and see if there exist any changes or shifts in the river hydrologic conditions during the post-Wimbleball construction period (Wimbleball was commissioned during 1979) on account of reservoir related human activities as compared to the period before Wimbleball construction when no great human influence was observed to exist in the area. The data set pertaining to different river flow parameters, which have been used here may have serial correlations but this should not be a problem in case of this analysis as the intention is to evaluate back-to-back differences in magnitudes of the parameters under two sets of time-periods. Thus, here it was preferred to carry out a simpleton-parametric statistical analysis for which the available data are quite sufficient. Moreover, there is no need for any data log transformation, which can be easily judged by having a look at the dataset. However, this being a very long chain of data, a separate check for data consistency and unexpected outliers has been carried out hereby transposing the data into very powerful data-mining analysis tool called Free-Fore (from Oakdale Engineering). The raw data used here has been downloaded from the NRFA web database. The mean daily flow values for all the years were downloaded as a .cave file which then has been directly imported into the IHA database for starting the statistical analysis. Then, for each of the 32 hydrologic parameters, the differences between the pre- and post-impact time periods in both the mean and coefficient of variation are presented, expressed as Botha magnitude of difference and a deviation percentage (Table-3). These comparisons of means and coefficients of variation for each of the 32parameters comprise the 64 different Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. Approximate confidence limits are also estimated for the difference between means and CV, respectively (Table-3), using standard formulae that are approximately valid when distributions are not Normal or change (e.g., have unequal variances) between time periods (Nedcor Cochran 1967; Stewart-Oaten et al. 1992) . Results Analysis The flow data for years 1956 to 2005 as obtained from the webpage of NRFA have units in comes (cubic meters per second) and the same were imported into the IHA model without any unit conversions. The impact of the Wimbleball reservoir, if any, may only be expected to show shifts in hydrological profile in and around the monitoring station, which is strategically located to record river conditions just in the down-stream of the Wimblebal discharge or regulation point. The period of impact then shall begin with the year 1979, the year when the reservoir was commissioned. The IHA results for the Exe-river are given in Tables-(3-5) and represented in Figures-(1 to 8). As revealed from the tables and figures, the relative differences between means ranged from -53%(annual 1-day maximum flow) to +135% (low pulse counts) for the individual attributes, while the average absolute difference for the five groups ranged from 11% (Group 1: monthly means) to 96% (Group 4:frequency and duration of pulses). For individual attributes, the relative difference in CV ranged from -60% (mean August flow) to +72%(mean April flow); the range for the five groups was 26% (Group 4:frequency and duration of pulses) to 41% (Group 3: timing of extreme events). References 2 Richter BD, Baumgartner JV, Wigington R, Braun DP. 1997. How much water does a river need? Freshwater Biology 37: 231-249. 3 EPA Module on Watershed Management, 4 Establishing Environmental Flow Requirements, Synthesis Report, Ontario Fisheries Oceans, Canada, 2002. 5 Richter D. 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